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YJ Draiman Energy, Utility & Telecom Development Specialist provides expertise in all sectors of the energy and utility industry.
Programs loans. “Various grant and stimulus money such as ARRA funding has provided billions of dollars for MUSH (municipalities, universities, schools, hospitals)
Over 20 years experience. Specializing in: ESCO – Energy Service Co., Energy Audit, Telecom audit, Utility bills audit and review for refunds and/or better rates – including tax refunds, Energy procurement, Demand Side Management, Power Factor Correction, Peak shaver, Energy Predominant Use Study, Energy Efficiency review and implementation, Building envelope analysis, Insulation, Renewable Energy, Lighting Retrofit, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Geothermal energy, Fuel-Cell, Thermal imaging, Rainwater harvesting, gray water utilization. Energy conservation and Water conservation methods, Energy and telecom audit and procurement, ERV and indoor pollution control, etc. commissioning new buildings and mechanical systems, Landscape design for energy efficiency. Rebates & tax credits. Property Assessed Clean Energy PACE
Currently working on my PHD in Energy Conservation
"Paying for utility costs without using a Utility Auditor and Monitor is like driving a car at night with the lights turned off"

Much is at stake when policy makers, regulators, and corporate executives face the challenges of evolving energy markets and efficiency.

I can help you meet that challenge!

“It is Cheaper to Save Energy than Make Energy”
YJ Draiman dba Energy Savers
YJ Draiman, Energy, Telecom and water conservation consultant
YJ Draiman, Energy Efficiency and Utility Advisor

Solar Energy


The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. 

Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. The major drawbacks (problems, or issues to overcome) of solar energy are: (1) the intermittent and variable manner in which it arrives at the earth's surface and, (2) the large area required to collect it at a useful rate. 
Solar energy is used for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy. 
In the 1830s, the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar collector box to cook food during an expedition to Africa. Now, people are trying to use the sun's energy for lots of things. 
Electric utilities are trying photovoltaics, a process by which solar energy is converted directly to electricity. Electricity can be produced directly from solar energy using photovoltaic devices or indirectly from steam generators using solar thermal collectors to heat a working fluid. 
Out of the 14 known solar electric generating units operating in the US at the end of 2004, 10 of these are in California, and 4 in Arizona. No statistics are being collected on solar plants that produce less than 1 megawatt of electricity, so there may be smaller solar plants in a number of other states. 


Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity through a photovoltaic (PVs) cell, commonly called a solar cell. A photovoltaic cell is a nonmechanical device usually made from silicon alloys. 
Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a photovoltaic cell, they may be reflected, pass right through, or be absorbed. Only the absorbed photons provide energy to generate electricity. When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the material (a semiconductor), electrons are dislodged from the material's atoms. Special treatment of the material surface during manufacturing makes the front surface of the cell more receptive to free electrons, so the electrons naturally migrate to the surface. 

When the electrons leave their position, holes are formed. When many electrons, each carrying a negative charge, travel toward the front surface of the cell, the resulting imbalance of charge between the cell's front and back surfaces creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive terminals of a battery. When the two surfaces are connected through an external load, electricity flows. 
The photovoltaic cell is the basic building block of a PV system. Individual cells can vary in size from about 1 cm (1/2 inch) to about 10 cm (4 inches) across. However, one cell only produces 1 or 2 watts, which isn't enough power for most applications. To increase power output, cells are electrically connected into a packaged weather-tight module. Modules can be further connected to form an array. The term array refers to the entire generating plant, whether it is made up of one or several thousand modules. As many modules as needed can be connected to form the array size (power output) needed. 
The performance of a photovoltaic array is dependent upon sunlight. Climate conditions (e.g., clouds, fog) have a significant effect on the amount of solar energy received by a PV array and, in turn, its performance. Most current technology photovoltaic modules are about 10 percent efficient in converting sunlight with further research being conducted to raise this efficiency to 20 percent. 
The pv cell was discovered in 1954 by Bell Telephone researchers examining the sensitivity of a properly prepared silicon wafer to sunlight. Beginning in the late 1950s, pvs were used to power U.S. space satellites. The success of PVs in space generated commercial applications for pv technology. The simplest photovoltaic systems power many of the small calculators and wrist watches used everyday. More complicated systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment, and even provide electricity to our homes. 
Photovoltaic conversion is useful for several reasons. Conversion from sunlight to electricity is direct, so that bulky mechanical generator systems are unnecessary. The modular characteristic of photovoltaic energy allows arrays to be installed quickly and in any size required or allowed. 
Also, the environmental impact of a photovoltaic system is minimal, requiring no water for system cooling and generating no by-products. Photovoltaic cells, like batteries, generate direct current (DC) which is generally used for small loads (electronic equipment). When DC from photovoltaic cells is used for commercial applications or sold to electric utilities using the electric grid, it must be converted to alternating current (AC) using inverters, solid state devices that convert DC power to AC. Historically, pvs have been used at remote sites to provide electricity. However, a market for distributed generation from PVs may be developing with the unbundling of transmission and distribution costs due to electric deregulation. The siting of numerous small-scale generators in electric distribution feeders could improve the economics and reliability of the distribution system.


The major applications of solar thermal energy at present are heating swimming pools, heating water for domestic use, and space heating of buildings. For these purposes, the general practice is to use flat-plate solar-energy collectors with a fixed orientation (position). 
Where space heating is the main consideration, the highest efficiency with a fixed flat-plate collector is obtained if it faces approximately south and slopes at an angle to the horizon equal to the latitude plus about 15 degrees. 
Solar collectors fall into two general categories: nonconcentrating and concentrating. 
In the nonconcentrating type, the collector area (i.e. the area that intercepts the solar radiation) is the same as the absorber area (i.e., the area absorbing the radiation). 
In concentrating collectors, the area intercepting the solar radiation is greater, sometimes hundreds of times greater, than the absorber area. Where temperatures below about 200o F are sufficient, such as for space heating, flat-plate collectors of the nonconcentrating type are generally used. 
There are many flat-plate collector designs but generally all consist of (1) a flat-plate absorber, which intercepts and absorbs the solar energy, (2) a transparent cover(s) that allows solar energy to pass through but reduces heat loss from the absorber, (3) a heat-transport fluid (air or water) flowing through tubes to remove heat from the absorber, and (4) a heat insulating backing. 
Solar space heating systems can be classified as passive or active. In passive heating systems, the air is circulated past a solar heat surface(s) and through the building by convection (i.e. less dense warm air tends to rise while more dense cooler air moves downward) without the use of mechanical equipment. In active heating systems, fans and pumps are used to circulate the air or the heat absorbing fluid. 


Solar thermal power plants use the sun's rays to heat a fluid, from which heat transfer systems may be used to produce steam. The steam, in turn, is converted into mechanical energy in a turbine and into electricity from a conventional generator coupled to the turbine. Solar thermal power generation is essentially the same as conventional technologies except that in conventional technologies the energy source is from the stored energy in fossil fuels released by combustion. Solar thermal technologies use concentrator systems due to the high temperatures needed for the working fluid. The three types of solar-thermal power systems in use or under development are:parabolic trough, solar dish, and solar power tower. 


The parabolic trough is used in the largest solar power facility in the world located in the Mojave Desert at Kramer Junction, California. This facility has operated since the 1980’s and accounted for the majority of solar electricity produced by the electric power sector in 2004.

A parabolic trough collector has a linear parabolic-shaped reflector that focuses the sun's radiation on a linear receiver located at the focus of the parabola. The collector tracks the sun along one axis from east to west during the day to ensure that the sun is continuously focused on the receiver. Because of its parabolic shape, a trough can focus the sun at 30 to 100 times its normal intensity (concentration ratio) on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough, achieving operating temperatures over 400 degrees Celcius.
A collector field consists of a large field of single-axis tracking parabolic trough collectors. The solar field is modular in nature and is composed of many parallel rows of solar collectors aligned on a north-south horizontal axis. A working (heat transfer) fluid is heated as it circulates through the receivers and returns to a series of heat exchangers at a central location where the fluid is used to generate high-pressure superheated steam. The steam is then fed to a conventional steam turbine/generator to produce electricity. After the working fluid passes through the heat exchangers, the cooled fluid is recirculated through the solar field. The plant is usually designed to operate at full rated power using solar energy alone, given sufficient solar energy. However, all plants are hybrid solar/fossil plants that have a fossil-fired capability that can be used to supplement the solar output during periods of low solar energy. The Luz plant is a natural gas hybrid. 


A solar dish/engine system utilizes concentrating solar collectors that track the sun on two axes, concentrating the energy at the focal point of the dish because it is always pointed at the sun. The solar dish's concentration ratio is much higher that the solar trough, typically over 2,000, with a working fluid temperature over 750oC. The power-generating equipment used with a solar dish can be mounted at the focal point of the dish, making it well suited for remote operations or, as with the solar trough, the energy may be collected from a number of installations and converted to electricity at a central point. The engine in a solar dish/engine system converts heat to mechanical power by compressing the working fluid when it is cold, heating the compressed working fluid, and then expanding the fluid through a turbine or with a piston to produce work. The engine is coupled to an electric generator to convert the mechanical power to electric power. 


A solar power tower or central receiver generates electricity from sunlight by focusing concentrated solar energy on a tower-mounted heat exchanger (receiver). This system uses hundreds to thousands of flat sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats to reflect and concentrate the sun's energy onto a central receiver tower. The energy can be concentrated as much as 1,500 times that of the energy coming in from the sun. Energy losses from thermal-energy transport are minimized as solar energy is being directly transferred by reflection from the heliostats to a single receiver, rather than being moved through a transfer medium to one central location, as with parabolic troughs. Power towers must be large to be economical. This is a promising technology for large-scale grid-connected power plants. Though power towers are in the early stages of development compared with parabolic trough technology, a number of test facilities have been constructed around the world.

The U.S. Department of Energy along with a number of electric utilities built and operated a demonstration solar power tower near Barstow, California, during the 1980's and 1990's. Learn more about the history of solar power in the Solar Timeline. 


There has never been a better time to invest in Solar Power

By investing in solar today you can start generating your own clean, renewable electricity from the sun and gain some energy independence. 

  • Lower your utility bills and operating costs
  • Stop rising energy prices
  • Make a positive impact on our global environment
Businesses are seeing shorter payoff periods and greater financial returns due to federal, states and local incentives. 
Now is the time to invest in solar electric power and take advantage of these benefits.

Purchasing a grid-tied solar power system 

With a 30-year plus lifecycle, these systems will provide clean, renewable energy for many years, while continuing to provide financial and environmental benefits as well. There are a variety of purchase options including a cash purchase, equipment lease or special financing. 

Greenhouse gases are trace gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Human activity has increased the greenhouse effect through the release of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, deforestation, burning of fossil fuels and more. 

These gases trap energy radiating from the earth and push it back towards the earth. This is referred to as the greenhouse effect. This has a negative impact on the environment. Some examples are: 
  • An overall increase in the average temperature of the earth
  • Melting polar ice caps which can cause floods and other extreme weather
  • Destruction of animal habitats, possibly leading to extinction
We can reduce these greenhouse gas emissions by lowering our dependence on fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and petroleum that we use to generate electricity. 

Increasing our use of renewable energy is the key to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. Through renewable energy, energy efficiency and careful energy management both your company, our dependency on foreign energy sources will be reduced and the environment will benefit. 



Example of a large Industrial/Business Geothermal System

Solar Power is Clean, Renewable, Profitable and Provides Low Maintenance Electricity

Solar power is both a smart financial investment as well as an environmentally conscious one. Solar energy provides the following benefits:

  • Positive Financial Returns
    Based on a variety of creative, solar-specific financing options, payoff periods are decreased and financial returns are increased. 

  • Stop Rising Electricity Prices
    Solar electric power is not dependent on the cost of fossil fuels. It is also not dependent on the existence, development or maintenance of a fuel delivery infrastructure.

  • Renewable Power Generation
    As a 100% renewable energy source, solar electricity provides the advantages of other distributed generation systems without the dependence on fossil fuels.

  • Flexibility 
    Solar power produces no noise and zero emissions. Solar power can be installed on buildings, parking structures, rooftops or the ground. 

  • No Moving Parts
How Solar Systems Work Print  

Renewable Energy (RE) may seem puzzling to some people that are not familiar with it. To help those of you that are being exposed to solar power for the first time, we have compiled a dozen of the most frequently asked questions (with their answers) that we hear at Marin Solar everyday. We hope this FAQ file is helpful to you. 

Q1: How do solar cells generate electricity?

A1: Photovoltaics or PV for short can be thought of as a direct current (DC) generator powered by the sun. When light photons of sufficient energy strike a solar cell, they knock electrons free in the silicon crystal structure forcing them through an external circuit (battery or direct DC load), and then returning them to the other side of the solar cell to start the process all over again. The voltage output from a single crystalline solar cell is about 0.5V with an amperage output that is directly proportional to cell's surface area (approximately 7A for a 6 inch square multicrystalline solar cell). Typically 30-36 cells are wired in series (+ to -) in each solar module. This produces a solar module with a 12V nominal output (~17V at peak power) that can then be wired in series and/or parallel with other solar modules to form a complete solar array to charge a 12, 24 or 48 volt battery bank. 


Q2: Will solar work in my location?

A2: Solar is universal and will work virtually anywhere, however some locations are better than others. Irradiance is a measure of the sun's power available at the surface of the earth and it averages about 1000 watts per square meter. With typical crystalline solar cell efficiencies around 14-16%, that means we can expect to generate about 140-160W per square meter of solar cells placed in full sun. Insolation is a measure of the available energy from the sun and is expressed in terms of "full sun hours" (i.e. 4 full sun hours = 4 hours of sunlight at an irradiance level of 1000 watts per square meter). Obviously different parts of the world receive more sunlight from others, so they will have more "full sun hours" per day. The solar insolation zone map on the right will give you a general idea of the "full sun hours per day" for your location. 

Q3: How much will a system cost for my 2000 square foot home?

A3: Unfortunately there is no per square foot "average" since the cost of a system actually depends on your daily energy usage and how many full sun hours you receive per day; And if you have other sources of electricity. To accurately size a system to meet your needs, we need to know how much energy you use per day. If your home is connected to the utility grid, simply look at your monthly electric bill. Using this information, you Marin Solar can design a system to meet you needs. Please click here to contact us. 

Q4: Can I use all of my normal 120/240 VAC appliances?

A4: Yes, but many older homes were not designed or built with energy efficiency in mind. When you purchase and install a renewable energy system for your home, you become your own power company so every kWh of energy you use means more equipment (and hence more money) is required to meet your energy needs. Air conditioning, pool/hot tub eqipment, refrigeration, and lighting are typically the largest energy consumers in a home (after electric heating loads) and these two areas should be looked at very carefully in terms of getting the most energy efficient units available. Great strides have been made in the past 5 years towards improving the efficiency of electric refrigerators/freezers. Compact fluorescent lights use a quarter to a third of the power of an incandescent light for the same lumen output and they last ten times longer. These fluorescent lights are now readily available at your local hardware or discount store. The rule of thumb in the renewable energy industry is that for every dollar you spend replacing your inefficient appliances, you will save three dollars in the cost of a renewable energy system to run them. So you can see that energy conservation is crucial and can really pay off when considering a renewable energy system. 

Q5: What components do I need for a grid-tie system?

A5: Grid-tie systems are inherently simpler than either grid-tie with battery back-up or stand-alone solar systems. In fact, other than safety disconnects, mounting structures and wiring a grid-tie system is just solar modules and a grid-tie inverter! Today's sophisticated grid-tie inverters incorporate most of the components needed to convert the direct current form the modules to alternating current, track the maximum power point of the modules to operate the system at peak efficiencies and terminate the grid connection if grid power is interrupted form the utility. 

Q6: What components do I need?

A6: There are many components that make up a complete solar system, but the 2 main items are: solar modules and inverter(s) (add charge controller(s), and batteries if they system has battery backup). The solar modules are physically mounted on a mount structure (see question 7) and the DC power they produce is wired through an inverter which is connected to your homes electrical system. The inverter takes the DC energy generated from the sun and inverts it to 120/240 VAC to run your AC appliances or turn your meter backwards and generate credits with your utility. If you have battery backup then the DC power the solar modules produce is wired through a charge controller before it goes on to the battery bank where it is stored. The two main functions of a charge controller are to prevent the battery from being overcharged and eliminate any reverse current flow from the batteries back to the solar modules at night. The battery bank stores the energy produced by the solar array during the day for use at anytime of day or night. Batteries come in many sizes and grades. 

Q7: What type of solar module mounting structure should I use?

A7: There are four basic types of mount structures: roof/ground, top-of-pole, side-of-pole and tracking mounts, each having their own pros and cons. For example roof mount structures typically keep the wire run distances between the solar array and inverter to a minimum, which is good. But they also require roof penetrations in multiple locations (a potential source of leakage) and they require an expensive ground fault protection (GFP- device to satisfy article 690-5 of the National Electrical Code- NEC). On the other hand, ground mounted solar arrays require fairly precise foundation setup, are more susceptible to theft/vandalism and excessive snow accumulation at the bottom of the array. Next are top-of-pole mounts which are relatively easy to install (you sink a 2-6 inch diameter SCH40 steel pole up to 4-6 feet in the ground with concrete). Make sure that the pole is plumb and mount the solar modules and rack on top of the pole. Top-of-pole mounts reduce the risk of theft/vandalism (as compared to a ground mount). They are also a better choice for cold climates because snow slides off easily. Side of pole mounts are easy to install, but are typically used for small numbers of solar modules (1-4) for remote lighting systems where there already is an existing pole to attach them to. Last but not least are the trackers, which increase the daily number of full sun hours and are used for solar water pumping applications. Trackers are extremely effective in the summer time when water is needed the most. In the northern U.S., typical home energy usage peaks in the winter when a tracker mount makes very little difference as compared to any type of fixed mount (roof, ground or top-of-pole). In this situation, having more modules on a less expensive fixed mount will serve you better in the winter than fewer modules on a tracker. However, if you are in the southern U.S. and your energy usage peaks in the summer, then a tracker may be beneficial to match the time of your highest energy consumption with a tracking solar array's maximum energy output. 


Q8: Where should I mount the solar modules and what direction should I face them?

A8: If your site is in the Northern Hemisphere you need to aim your solar modules to the true south direction (the reverse is true for locations in the Southern Hemisphere) to maximize your daily energy output. For many locations there is quite a difference between magnetic south and true south, so please consult the declination map below before you setup your mount structure. The solar modules should be tilted up from horizontal to get a better angle at the sun and help keep the modules clean by shedding rain or snow. For best year round power output with the least amount of maintenance, you should set the solar array facing true south at a tilt angle equal to your latitude with respect to the horizontal position. If you plan to adjust your solar array tilt angle seasonally, a good rule of thumb to go by is latitude minus 15° in the summer, latitude in the spring/fall and latitude plus 15° in the winter. Most mount structures provide for a seasonal adjustment of the tilt angle from horizontal to 65°. To determine if your proposed array site will be shaded at any time of the day or year you should consider using the Solar Pathfinder. 


Solar System Sample Price for typical 3-kW DC Grid-Tie System
3-kW DC Roof mount Solar Grid-tie system
Price is valid for 6 months from date above

Typical roof mount Solar Grid-tie system includes:****
1 Xantrex GT-3.0 3kW inverter
18 Sharp 170 watt panels
roof mount hardware
AC and DC Disconnect switches
all labor and materials for the grid-tie
all paperwork for the State Rebate and PG&E contracts

Total Solar System price before California rebate*.......................................................................$ 23,850.00

Estimated California Energy Commission Rebate at $2.50 an AC watt.................................. $ (6,340.00)

Estimated Net cost of the Solar system**...***.........................................................................$ 17,510.00

New for 2006-2007 A federal Tax Credit of $2000.00 for residential and up to 30% for commercial.
So your net cost is approx 15,510.00 or less !!!!!!! 
Call for more details....

*This is an average price for a typical Solar grid-tie system on a composition roof with no complications.
The price does not include building permit fees for your area.

** Please check with your certified tax planner to see if the Federal Tax credit is applicable to your tax situation.

***If the solar grid-tie system is for a commercial building you can depreciate your total cost over 5 years which means the 
system pays for itself even faster.

**** Typical roof mount indicates Plenty of roof space with no obstructions and the PG&E meter connected to the same 
structure and accessible with conduit. This does not include any excavation work.

1. Solar energy: panel and cell manufacturers
2. Non-silicon thin-film solar technology
3. Solar Electric Glazing Technology
4. Solar pumps
5. Other solar products' manufacturers
6. Solar manufacturing equipment
7. Industry Publications

Related categories 
Solar Concentration Technologies 
Solar Energy Associations 
Solar Tracking - Manufacturers 
Solar and Wind Energy Retail
Solar Panel Price Survey 
Solar Energy Resources

1. Solar Power Panels and Solar Cells - Manufacturers

Advent Solar
Manufacturer of advanced technology solar cells and modules. Innovative back-contact cell technology.
Innovalight is developing light-activated power generating products based on a unique and patented solvent-based silicon nanomaterial platform.
SunPower designs and manufactures high-performance silicon solar cells.
By marrying a conventional CIGS cell structure with a proven high-volume manufacturing technology, Miasolé sets a new standard for cost efficiency and reliability for the solar industry.
DayStar Technologies
DayStar Technologies, Inc. is a pioneer in the development and commercialization of solar electric power generation technologies that include flexible and rigid PV modules, building integrated components and ultra light weight space PV cells.
ASE Americas, Inc.
Established as an innovative company, ASE Americas has positioned itself to be the module supplier of choice for those applications which demand the utmost in safety, reliability and performance such as utility, military and telecommunications.
Kyocera Solar
Kyocera is the world's largest vertically-integrated producer and supplier of solar energy products. Our solar division has headquarters in Scottsdale, Arizona, and regional sales centers on five continents, Kyocera Solar, Inc (KSI), our North American solar products subsidiary, services thousands of customers in both the developed and developing world.
Atlantis Energy Inc.
USA & Switzerland
Designed and built the first fully integrated PV-roofs (both PV-shingle and PV-shed designs), PV- façades and PV-shading systems in Switzerland. Photovoltaic - building integration realized with SUNSLATES, the electricity generating construction material from ATLANTIS. SUNSLATES are suited to new buildings as well as to retrofitting. Activities: Solar Energy, Sea Water Desalination, Waste Water Recycling, Installation of solar ponds, large scale solar energy collectors with integral heat storage for the supply of thermal energy.
Energy Photovoltaics- Inc.
Leading vertically integrated photovoltaic (PV) company involved in: Thin film photovoltaic manufacturing equipment sales. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and PV module sales.
Crystal Systems
Silicon for photovoltaics.
Energy Conversion Devices
Energy generation (UniSolar, see below), energy storage (batteries), information technology.
Evergreen Solar
Evergreen Solar is a developer and manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV) modules - the engines of solar electric systems - used in remote power and emerging grid-connected markets.
"PowerGuard is a patented PV roofing assembly that delivers clean solar electricity to the building while protecting the roof from damaging effects of weather and UV radiation. PowerShade delivers clean, solar electricity while providing shade for parked autos or picnic areas. PowerTracker is a tracking PV structure that provides up to 34% more energy (kWh) than fixed PV structures. Free system evaluation."
"Industrial Prepackaged Systems ideal for applications such as: Telecommunications, RTU/SCADA Applications, Data Collection, Weather Instrumentation, Navigational Aids, Security Lighting AND Surveillance. "Other products: SunWizeTM Battery Charger, The SunWizeTMOutdoor Area Lighting system can be used for roadways, parking lots and general lighting applications."
TerraSolar, Inc.
USA, Europe
TerraSolar Inc. develops, manufactures and markets solar power products for distributed residential, commercial, and industrial markets. The company uses state of the art manufacturing technology to produce the lowest-cost solar electric technologies available on the market today while continuing a tradition of technological innovation.
United Solar Systems Corp. (UniSolar)
United Solar's unique thin-film solar cell technology achieves unprecedented levels of efficiency for amorphous silicon solar cells through the use of proprietary triple-junction spectrum-splitting cell design. Its advanced roll-to-roll manufacturing process uses a flexible stainless steel substrate that enables low-cost production and the development of many types of light-weight, robust, flexible and rigid solar cell modules.
Solaicx is developing and implementing breakthrough-manufacturing technology that yields low-cost, high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic material.
ICP Solar
A world leader manufacturer of advanced thin film (ATF) solar technology.
"R&D work on Cadmium Telluride thin film polycrystalline solar cells. Canrom's modules of equivalent output, cost less and have longer guarantees than other manufacturers' products. Canrom produces solar cells, modules, systems, and testing equipment."
Solar Century is the leading provider of solar photovoltaic (PV) solutions in the UK. Winning Best Exterior Product, C21 is the latest in roof integrated solar technology. The new roof tile, unlike other solar roofing products, has been developed specifically for the UK housing market. It's integrated design and aesthetic appeal means that for most developments it won't need planning permission.
BP Solar
"BP's solar division, BP Solar, was established in 1981 and had a 1998 turnover of $95million. It has manufacturing bases in Australia, India, Spain and California, producing 13.2MW a year. Major recent projects include the supply of solar panels to the athletes village for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia and a $30 million project to supply solar power to some 400 remote villages in the Philippines."
"Pilkington leads the world in photovoltaics modules for advanced buildings. Pilkington also makes solar thermal mirrors for power stations in sunny countries, and photovoltaic panels which can be used in any climate. Pilkington K Glass offers up to 30% better insulation than ordinary double-glazing."
Thin-film silicon based solar panels with superior performance.
Origin Energy
Origin Energy's revolutionary Sliver® technology developed by the Australian National University's Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems allows for 90% reduction in silicon use. Concept: Sliver Technology (Australian National University)
Conergy is a manufacturer of photovoltaic and thermal systems, including inverters, storage tanks and mounting systems.
Schott Solar
Fully-integrated manufacturer of PV solar power components
IBC Solar
Performance spectrum between 50 Wp and 220 Wp. Real MEGALINE: Extremely low energy return time, exceptionally high cell efficiency and environmentally sound production on state-of-the-art mass production lines.
Development and production of silicon-based high-performance solar cells and solar inverters.
Aleo Solar
In addition to high-quality solar modules from in-house production, Aleo solar also offers specialized traders complete, tailor-made photovoltaic systems: from inverters to the entire assembly system Aleo customers receive everything "from one source".
Q-Cells AG is a producer of mono- and polycrystalline, silicon-based high-efficiency solar cells.
Ersol Solar Energy
The core business of ErSol Solar Energy AG is the production of monocrystalline and multicrystalline silicon solar cells.
Solar World
SolarWorld AG – constructor of photovoltaic plants and a leading independent German manufacturer and distributor of photovoltaic cells and modules .
Producer of installation-ready solar modules.
Produces photovoltaic modules, solar cells, solar electric PV systems, thin film coating and standards for the semiconductor industry.
Flexcell manufactures light, thin and flexible PV cells, using a proprietary thin film coating technology. With the aim to achieve significantly lower production costs, flexcell has industrialized the process to deposit a single amorphous silicon layer on low cost plastic substrates.
Scheuten Solar Systems
Scheuten Solar Technology has been the manufacturer of both custom made (Optisol®) and standard (Multisol®) solar modules. For this we have the disposal of the most advanced production lines of Europe. Scheuten Solar Systems and Technology have also over more then 20 years experience with the design and turn-key realization of PV-systems. This is valid for projects with both the more eye catching semi-transparent modules and standard modules.
Shell Solar
Shell Solar is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of solar cells, panels, and systems. Technologies offered are monocrystalline, multicrystalline, and CIS thin film.
Design and production of solar modules, cells and electronic equipment for photovoltaic applications. Turn-key installations. Marketing. Distribution. Photovoltaic systems engineering. State-of-the-art machinery for production of photovoltaic modules.
"Largest integrated manufacturer of photovoltaic wafers, cells and modules in Europe, and the world leader in thin silicon cell technology. TENESA, in South Africa, and TECHNOSOLAR SYSTEMS, in Algeria, are two joint ventures set up with local partners and TOTAL Energie to develop activities of module assembly and systems development". Now a subsidiary of Matrix Solar Technologies.
Manufacture and installation of solar modules. Electrification of rural areas. Grid connection etc.
As a spin-off of IMEC, Photovoltech has a variety of innovative technologies at its disposal. Its isotropic texturization production process delivers cells that combine an outstandingly uniform appearance with high efficiencies (up to 16% and more). Brands: Mithras
Ekarat Solar Company
PV cells and modules manufacturer. The company offers on and off the grid solar power system solution and installation.
From solar lighting and electricity, to clean water and wireless communications, SELCO aims to empower its customers by providing complete packages of product, service and consumer financing, all under one roof.
Moser Baer Photovoltaic
Moser Baer Photovoltaic incorporated in New Delhi, India is a subsidiary of Moser Baer India Ltd that caters to the photovoltaic (PV) business. The company plans to make the solar power generation business by manufacturing solar cells and modules, is targeting an annual capacity of 80 MW in Phase I.
Titan Solar
TITAN Energy Systems is one of the leading Indian manufacturer and exporter of solar photovoltaic modules, established in 1995.
Manufacturer of solar cells.
E-Ton Solar
Manufacturer of mono-crystalline solar cells.
Baoding Tianweiyingli New Energy
Integrated solar wafer, solar cell and solar module manufacturer.
Suntech Power
Specializes in the design, development, manufacturing and sale of photovoltaic (PV) cells, modules and systems.
Changzhou Trina Solar Energy
Complete vertically integrated product line, from ingot, wafer, solar cell, module, to system. Trina 's solar module, mono-crystalline ingot, and other products are mainly shipping overseas.

2. Nonsilicon Solar Thin Film Technology

First Solar
Thin film CdTe solar panel manufacturer. CdTe offers the advantages of increased production with high temperatures and diffused light compared to conventional solar modules.
Developer of dye-sensitized technology consisting of nanometer-scale crystals of TiO2 semiconductor coated with a monolayer of light-absorbing dye and embedded in an electrolyte between the front and back electrical contacts. Photons in light are absorbed by the dye. Relatively simple manufacturing requirements will allow dye-sensitized photovoltaic products to be manufactured much cheaper than current technology.
Nanosolar has developed an advanced body of thin-film technology based on design and process technology innovations in six areas: nanostructured components, printable semiconductors, solar-cell architecture, flexible substrate technology, cell-interconnect technology, and roll-to-roll process technology.
Nanosys is an industry leading nanotechnology company developing products based on a technology platform incorporating high performance inorganic nanostructures. One potential product is a new type of solar cell that performs like a traditional solar cell, but can be configured like a light weight, flexible plastic.
Global Solar Energy
Thin film technology and integrated systems. Copper-Indium-Galium-diSelenide (CIGS) photovoltaics.
Solaris Nanosciences
Focused on developing nanoscale materials for large applications including the solar energy, display and vision markets. Our materials can boost the absorption of sensitizing dyes by several orders of magnitude; potentially making Graetzel cells more efficient than silicon at drastically reduced manufacturing costs.
GEMZ Corp. incorporated its wholly-owned subsidiary, International Nanotechnology Corp. The company has as its goal to develop patented, commercial products using Nanotechnology to harness renewable energy.
Dyesol’s technology is based on Dye Solar Cell (DSC), which has been identified in forecasts included in the Japanese and EU Photovoltaic Roadmaps as the emerging solar technology. Advantages such as not necessitating the use of high-priced raw materials, a manufacturing process that does not produce toxic emissions, and the potential for rapid efficiency enhancement.
Aleo Solar
Building factory which will produce thin-film with efficiency up to 16%
Greatcell Solar
Dye solar cells. Can be used in any solar conditions.

3. Solar Energy Glazing Technology

XsunX is the provider of a breakthrough technology to produce solar electric glass. This proprietary process is intended to allow manufacturers to apply a transparent and photovoltaic glazing to glass and other transparent substrates.
The use of Romag's photovoltaic solar panels enables energy from the sun's rays to be converted into power for heating buildings or providing hot water supplies, whilst allowing the passage of natural daylight into the building.

4. Solar Water Pumps

For locations without power lines, Conergy Solar Pumps offer a clean and simple alternative to fuel-burning generators and windmills. They require no fuel deliveries and very little maintenance. A solar pump, produces the most water when it is needed the most.
Sunmotor International
"We manufacture a line of specialty D.C. pumps for operation by solar power. Floating Pumps, Groundwater Pumps, Garden Pumps, Air Pumps. Applications: Watering Livestock, Village Water Supply, Micro Irrigation, Drainage and Dewatering, Landscaping, Aeration. Turn-key solar energy pumping systems, from engineering design to project implementation and technical training.
Divwatt - Solastar
South Africa
"The most efficient solar water pump ever devised. (Patents Pending Worldwide) Fully integrated, cost effective Submersible Solar Powered Water Pumping System requiring minimal skills and tools to install in inaccessible and remote areas. Capacities up to 1350 l/h, heads up to 200 meters, ambient temperature range –40C to 70C, capable of "running dry" continuously without any risk of long-term damage. Custom design available."

5. Other Solar Energy Products Manufacturers

Solar Technology
"The Silent Messenger Solar Powered Changeable Message Sign. The Silent Sentinel Solar Powered Arrow Board. The Silent Signal Solar Powered Portable Traffic Signal."
Applied Materials
Applied Films is a leading provider of technologically advanced thin film deposition equipment and service. Developing and implementing innovative coating solutions we are supplying high-tech markets such as the flat panel display and the solar glass industry. Nano technology.
We manufacture a wide variety of solar (photovoltaic) powered products for educational, consumer, electronic and custom OEM markets. Manufacturing of our Solarts® solar powered executive gifts began in 1978.
Silicon Solar
Find the best selection and wholesale prices on solar lights, solar fountains, and solar cells along with several solar panels and solar kits. Consistently introduces best-in-class products implemented in solar energy that dramatically improve the customer value.
Stirling Energy Systems
Electricity generation with solar heat
Solar Integrated Technologies
Solar Integrated Technologies designs, manufacturers and installs solar electric roofing products for commercial, industrial and military applications worldwide.
Pecan Solar
Solar street lights, slow combustion wood heaters.
Sunlight Solar Systems
Full range of solar lighting, solar lights and solar energy power systems. LED lighting products.
Energie Solaire
The stainless steel Solar Roof from Energie Solaire SA turns a roof into an efficient solar collector for hot water, space heating or swimming pool heating.

6. Solar Manufacturing Equipment

Solar Manufacturing Equipment: Thin-film module production lines and Turn-key solar factory.
Spire Corporation provides solar electric systems for distributed power generation and is a leading supplier of solar electric module manufacturing equipment, turnkey production lines, and solar energy businesses.
GT Solar
From silicon feedstock to completed solar cell modules, we handle all aspects of manufacturing as a fabrication expert, equipment maker, system integrator, and as a design partner of custom manufactured PV equipment for commercialization.
GreenMountain Engineering
Design consulting firm with reputation for innovative solutions in manufacturing processes.
OTB Solar
The Netherlands
Manufacturer of equipment with integrated process technology which enables the solar industry to produce solar cells at lower cost/MW: by decreasing production costs, increasing efficiency, improving product consistency and guaranteeing production volume.
3S Swiss Solar Systems
Development and construction of machines designed to produce photovoltaic systems – standard series as well as special modules.
Produces complete manufacturing assembling PV modules lines.

7. Industry Publications

Photovoltaic Insider's Report Industry On-Line Magazine: "Welcome to our home in cyberspace. In concert with our mission, we hope this will be an active resource for professionals in the photovoltaic industry."

















Downtown skyline. Los Angeles, California, USA

American Solar Energy Society
Australian & New Zealand Solar Energy Society
Boston Area Solar Energy Association (BASEA)
El Paso Solar Energy Association
Greenstar: Solar Community
International Solar Energy Society
National Solar Power Research Institute, Inc.
New Mexico Solar Energy Association
Passive Solar Industries Council
Planetary Engineering Group Earth
Potomac Region Solar Energy Association
Solar Century
Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)
Solar Energy International
Texas Solar Energy Society
U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program
UK Solar Energy Society
Utility PhotoVoltaic Group

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